Results for Tag: Precipitation

18 results found.

The Islamic Republic of Iran covers a total area of 1.75 million km2 and is bordered by Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz and the Persian Gulf to the south, and Iraq and Turkey to the west.

Water Resources and Quality in Iran

The total long-term annual renewable water resources are estimated at 120BCM, of which about 78BCM go to surface run-off, and groundwater recharge is estimated at about 42BCM per annum, 11BCM by qanats (underground water supply systems) and springs, plus 31BCM by wells.

What Does the Future Hold for Water in Iran?

Iran is facing unprecedented challenges in securing water and food for its growing population, which is projected to reach 92 million by 2050. These challenges are due not only to Iran’s semi-arid climate and declining precipitation over the past decade, but also to mismanagement of water resources.

Water Challenges of Iran

Water supply and food security will pose a major challenge in the coming years, which many government officials refer to as a human security issue. Both the country’s natural climatic situation and the government policies in managing its limited water resources over the past few decades have exacerbated this challenge.

Water Challenges of Turkey

Uncontrolled use of groundwater resources in the regions with insufficient amount of surface water (rivers and lakes) stands out as another challenge. Use of illegal wells for groundwater extraction is a major issue. Despite the legal regulations on wells, the problem related to illegal wells cannot be solved because of the inadequate sanctions and inspection. The groundwater resources are subject to intense use for agriculture purpose. Because of over-extraction, most of the groundwater resources are under the threat of extinction.

Surface Water and Groundwater Resources in Turkey

The total usable water potential of Turkey is 112 Billion m3 of which 98 Billion m3 is surface water and 14 Billion m3 is groundwater. In order to monitor groundwater extractions and prevent overuse, a regulation on groundwater measuring was enacted in 2011.

What Does the Future Hold for Water in Turkey?

It is essential to take immediate measures to prevent potential water shortage. Thus, demand-oriented management should be the focus rather than supply-oriented management. Demand-oriented management is provided by efficiently using water resources through limiting demand on water, and setting institutional, economic and administrative incentives to save water. It is essential for water resources management to be flexible and effective enough to adapt to changing climate conditions, dry spells, and new precipitation patterns.

Availability and Use of Water Resources in Turkey

According to the Falkenmark Index, which classifies countries in terms of their amount of water potential per capita, Turkey is a country with “water stress,” since it has 1,000-1,500 cubic meters of water potential per capita.

Geography, Climate, and Population

The population of Jordan has risen substantially over the last 60 years, from around 470,000 in the early 1950s to 6.2 million in 2010, a figure that is expected to double in the next three decades.


Around 92% of Lebanon’s sewage flows into rivers and the sea untreated. Wastewater management is fragmented, with responsibility for project planning and implementation (treatment facilities and connections to networks) split between the CDR, water establishments and municipalities.