Results for Tag: Surface Water

39 results found.
Solar Desalination: A Promising Solution for the Future of Water in MENA

To mitigate water scarcity, the countries of the MENA region have substantially increased their investment and participation in desalination. There is no single model for desalination, nor can one model be applied in all the countries.

Political Context

The political climate in the Middle East makes it impossible to discuss water without addressing the political contexts that have shaped its availability.

Jordan

Internationally, a water availability below 1,000 m3 per person per year is defined as water scarcity, while below 500 m3 is considered “absolute scarcity”. Jordan’s lack of water resources impacts the country’s economic growth, political stability and national security, but also public health.

Geography, Climate, and Population

The population of Jordan has risen substantially over the last 60 years, from around 470,000 in the early 1950s to 6.2 million in 2010, a figure that is expected to double in the next three decades.

Unregulated private sources & more

Incomplete network coverage, water rationing and other shortfalls in the public water supply system have led many Lebanese to take matters into their own hands and seek their own solutions to water supply.

Water Use

Groundwater and surface water account for respectively 51% and 49% of total water supply in Lebanon. Most of the surface water supply originates from spring sources, with 637 MCM/yr currently exploited.

Water Resources

Today, desalination accounts for approximately 42% of the country’s drinking water needs. Desalinated water production has increased significantly . . .

Water Resources in Lebanon

Lebanon has 40 rivers of which 17 are considered perennial. The total combined annual river flow is estimated at around 3,900 million cubic metres (MCM), with most of the flow (75%) occurring from January to May.

Water Infrastructure

Four dams and a rehabilitation project at Kouachra Lake are currently under construction. Some of the projects are controversial, such as the Brissa Dam in the north.

Challenges

Leakage, water loss and water theft form a huge problem in Jordan. An estimated 40% to 80% of the water supply is lost in the network, depending on the location.