Results for Tag: Security

24 results found.
Water Quality
Springs are monitored for water quality. Photo: Sharon Shlomo. Water quality in Israel has been declining in recent decades due to a decrease in rainfall, increase in population, improper run-off and sewage treatment, and overuse of natural resources. The Coastal Aquifer and the Jordan River are heavily polluted with saline water as well as pollutants [...]
Water Use

Cumulative water use in 2013 was around 2,187 MCM, exceeding natural water supply by about 45%. This deficit is increasingly made up for by alternative water sources.

Further Reading
1 - Yorke, V., 2013. ‘Politics matter: Jordan's path to water security lies through political reforms and regional cooperation’. 2 - UN-ESCWA & BGR, 2013. Jordan River. In: Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia, Beirut. 3- EDM Global, 2015. Every drop matters. See for project overview. 4 - Al-Ansari, N. et al., [...]
What Does the Future Hold?

In many ways, past policies and practices have exacerbated the problems of access, abstraction and overuse of this essential natural resource. After decades of relying mainly on supply-side solutions, Jordan has expanded its approaches to addressing these problems.

Shared Water Resources

Shifting regional relationships have affected Jordan’s access to these shared resources throughout the country’s history. In several cases, Jordan has received less than its equitable share of the resource, as upstream neighbours overexploit rivers and groundwater sources through damming, diversions and pumping.


Leakage, water loss and water theft form a huge problem in Jordan. An estimated 40% to 80% of the water supply is lost in the network, depending on the location.

Limitations on Developing Infrastructure in Gaza

Sanitation services and water infrastructure in Gaza are in a critical state. A 2009 World Bank report stated that Gaza has a well-designed master plan for water and sanitation services. The plan identifies the need to build three new treatment plants as well as significantly expand wastewater treatment capacity. However, the same report indicated that under current closure conditions and with a deteriorating political and security situation, less than 2% of the investment programme was being implemented.

Water Use

Rapid population growth in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s drove the Jordanian government to implement a strategy of food security, which in turn led to a sharp rise in water use in the government-supported agricultural sector.

Surface and Groundwater

Given the issues discussed above regarding the amount, reliability and quality of surface water sources, the Jordanian population relies mainly on groundwater for its domestic water supply.

Water Resources

about 239 MCM or 28% from surface water (of which 50 MCM comes from Israel under the 1994 peace treaty agreement) and about 433 MCM or 51% from renewable groundwater. The remaining amount comes from non-renewable aquifer (fossil) groundwater (about 75 MCM or 9%) and treated wastewater (about 102 MCM or 12%).