Results for Tag: Resources

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Asi River Basin

The length of the river is open to discussion. Depending on the source consulted, this ranges from 248km to 556km. Rainfall in the basin is about 644mm annually. The average temperature is around 16°C. The climate is semi-arid to arid in Lebanon, with annual rainfall of about 400mm

The Riparians of the Asi River

The annual amount of water used in Syria is about 15BCM. This comes from the Euphrates (50 per cent) and the Asi River basins (20 per cent). Of the water usage from the Asi River, 2,230MCM are used for irrigation, 320MCM for domestic purposes and 270MCM for industrial purposes. The total amount of water withdrawn from the Asi River is 2,730MCM

Water Use in the Asi River Basin and Earlier Cooperation Efforts Among the Riparians

In all three riparian countries, the river is used mainly for irrigation, domestic water supply and hydropower. The Asi River is diverted to the Homs-Hama water channels and Ghab-Roudji irrigation systems to meet the needs of Lebanon and Syria. The water is also stored in the Zeita Dam for domestic and irrigation purposes and energy production.

The Friendship Dam

The foundation stone of the dam was laid on 6 February 2011. On completion, the dam is expected to be 22.50 m high, with a capacity of 110MCM. Of that, 40MCM will be used for flood prevention and the rest for energy production, and irrigation (around 9,000 hectares of agricultural land).

Challenges of Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in the MENA Region

The rate of wastewater treatment is still low in many MENA countries, and reuse faces many challenges like; preference for freshwater over wastewater, inadequate information on the status of reuse and disposal of wastewater, and incomplete economic analysis of the wastewater treatment and reuse options

Why is Wastewater Reuse Important for MENA Countries?

There are many benefits of wastewater reuse. The environmental benefits include reducing the pollution of water resources and sensitive receiving bodies, and controlling saline water intrusion through groundwater recharge. Wastewater reuse also presents economic value by providing significant additional amounts of water and contributing to the conservation of freshwater resources. Additionally, it provides nutrient-rich water for irrigation and reduces the need for chemical fertilizers.

Water Resources and Quality in Iran

The total long-term annual renewable water resources are estimated at 120BCM, of which about 78BCM go to surface run-off, and groundwater recharge is estimated at about 42BCM per annum, 11BCM by qanats (underground water supply systems) and springs, plus 31BCM by wells.

Water Uses in Iran

In the year to date, the total agricultural, municipal and industrial water withdrawal has been about 100BCM, of which 41BCM from surface water, 58.8BCM from groundwater (qanats and wells) and 0.2BCM from desalinated water