Results for Tag: Mountain

24 results found.
Asi River Basin

The length of the river is open to discussion. Depending on the source consulted, this ranges from 248km to 556km. Rainfall in the basin is about 644mm annually. The average temperature is around 16°C. The climate is semi-arid to arid in Lebanon, with annual rainfall of about 400mm

Iran

The Islamic Republic of Iran covers a total area of 1.75 million km2 and is bordered by Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz and the Persian Gulf to the south, and Iraq and Turkey to the west.

Water Uses in Iran

In the year to date, the total agricultural, municipal and industrial water withdrawal has been about 100BCM, of which 41BCM from surface water, 58.8BCM from groundwater (qanats and wells) and 0.2BCM from desalinated water

Water Infrastructure in Iran

Dams have always played an important role in harnessing precious Iranian water reserves, and the long-term objective of Iran’s water resources development plan is based on the control and regulation of water through dams. In 2015, a total of 647 dams were in operation, of which 352 are considered significant reservoirs, with a total capacity of 48.39BCM.

Shared Water Resources of Iran

Internal renewable water resources are estimated at 92BCM, with another 13CM coming in from transboundary resources. Surface run-off represents a total of 97.3km3/year, of which 5.4 km3/year come from draining the aquifers.

Iraq

Sustainable water resource management in Iraq has no shortage of challenges. Some of Iraq’s water hardships, like seasonal floods and droughts, occur naturally. Many of the most disruptive and destructive problems are, however, man-made: water infrastructure debilitated from decades of war and neglect; inefficient and outdated agricultural practices; rapid population growth and urbanization; competing water management approaches within transboundary river systems; and the looming crisis of climate change. The government of Iraq has plans to address the situation but it remains to be seen whether major reform will transpire.

Turkey

All in all Turkey’s climate is defined as semi-arid, whereas nine types of climate are observed mediterranean climate, wet mediterranean climate, partially wet mediterranean climate, Black Sea climate, Partially wet Marmara climate, steppe climate, partially dry central anatolian climate, partially dry south east anatolian climate and continental east anatolian climate

Turkey’s Transboundary Waters

The Euphrates-Tigris basin is among the most important river basins in Turkey and in the Middle East. The average annual discharge of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers is 84 billion m3, which equals to the average annual flow of the Nile River. Euphrates provides 90 per cent of water, whose average annual flow is 32 billion m3, from Turkey.

Shared Water Resources

Developed in consultation with the Syrian government, the Assi scheme aims to develop water resources in the basin for irrigation, domestic use and hydropower.

Political Context

The political climate in the Middle East makes it impossible to discuss water without addressing the political contexts that have shaped its availability.