Results for Tag: Ministry

46 results found.
Iran

The Islamic Republic of Iran covers a total area of 1.75 million km2 and is bordered by Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz and the Persian Gulf to the south, and Iraq and Turkey to the west.

Water Resources and Quality in Iran

The total long-term annual renewable water resources are estimated at 120BCM, of which about 78BCM go to surface run-off, and groundwater recharge is estimated at about 42BCM per annum, 11BCM by qanats (underground water supply systems) and springs, plus 31BCM by wells.

Water Management in Iran

According to Iran’s water legislation, three ministries are directly responsible for water resources assessment and development, and namely are : The Ministry of Energy (MoE) , The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), and The Department of the Environment (DoE).

Shared Water Resources of Iran

Internal renewable water resources are estimated at 92BCM, with another 13CM coming in from transboundary resources. Surface run-off represents a total of 97.3km3/year, of which 5.4 km3/year come from draining the aquifers.

Iraq

Sustainable water resource management in Iraq has no shortage of challenges. Some of Iraq’s water hardships, like seasonal floods and droughts, occur naturally. Many of the most disruptive and destructive problems are, however, man-made: water infrastructure debilitated from decades of war and neglect; inefficient and outdated agricultural practices; rapid population growth and urbanization; competing water management approaches within transboundary river systems; and the looming crisis of climate change. The government of Iraq has plans to address the situation but it remains to be seen whether major reform will transpire.

Water Quality in Iraq

Presently, Iraq is contending with two types of water quality issues. One is salinity, the other is the concentration of pollutants in the water related to municipal, industrial and agricultural activities that introduce return flows into freshwater sources.

Water Resources in Iraq

The two dominant rivers in Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The watersheds, including their tributaries, account for 100% of the country’s surface water.

Water Uses in Iraq

Agricultural water uses in Iraq are the the vast majority among the other sectors. Municipal and industrial needs are tied for second place

Water Infrastructure in Iraq

Iraq’s extensive reservoir network is at the heart of the country’s ability to manage its available water resources. The dams are operated in three independent systems: System No. 1 encompassing the Euphrates, Tigris, Greater Zab and Lesser Zab; System No. 2 encompassing the al-Adhaim watershed; and System No. 3 encompassing the Diyala watershed.

Iraq’s Shared Water Resources

Bilateral and tripartite meetings have taken place between Turkey, Iraq and Syria since the mid-1960s. Despite the various attempts to negotiate a water-sharing agreement, the three riparians have disagreed on the division of water quantities and embarked upon individual water sector projects.