Results for Tag: Middle East

33 results found.

All in all Turkey’s climate is defined as semi-arid, whereas nine types of climate are observed mediterranean climate, wet mediterranean climate, partially wet mediterranean climate, Black Sea climate, Partially wet Marmara climate, steppe climate, partially dry central anatolian climate, partially dry south east anatolian climate and continental east anatolian climate

Turkey’s Transboundary Waters

The Euphrates-Tigris basin is among the most important river basins in Turkey and in the Middle East. The average annual discharge of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers is 84 billion m3, which equals to the average annual flow of the Nile River. Euphrates provides 90 per cent of water, whose average annual flow is 32 billion m3, from Turkey.

Surface Water and Groundwater Resources in Turkey

The total usable water potential of Turkey is 112 Billion m3 of which 98 Billion m3 is surface water and 14 Billion m3 is groundwater. In order to monitor groundwater extractions and prevent overuse, a regulation on groundwater measuring was enacted in 2011.

Solar Desalination: A Promising Solution for the Future of Water in MENA

To mitigate water scarcity, the countries of the MENA region have substantially increased their investment and participation in desalination. There is no single model for desalination, nor can one model be applied in all the countries.

How Does the Water Crisis Impact Life in Gaza?

Gaza’s water crisis affects every one of the territory’s 1.76 million inhabitants. The heavy pollution of water resources in the Gaza Strip has a severe impact on public health; children are particularly at risk from water-related diseases. In addition, the local economy, agricultural production in particular, and the environment suffer the consequences of the water scarcity and pollution.

Political Context

The political climate in the Middle East makes it impossible to discuss water without addressing the political contexts that have shaped its availability.


Internationally, a water availability below 1,000 m3 per person per year is defined as water scarcity, while below 500 m3 is considered “absolute scarcity”. Jordan’s lack of water resources impacts the country’s economic growth, political stability and national security, but also public health.

Geography, Climate, and Population

The population of Jordan has risen substantially over the last 60 years, from around 470,000 in the early 1950s to 6.2 million in 2010, a figure that is expected to double in the next three decades.

What Does the Future Hold?

The shared nature of Israel’s water resources poses a particular challenge. In order for water use to become sustainable in the region, transboundary water management must be improved.

Water Infrastructure

In 2012, the Water Authority published a master plan outlining a strategy to ensure water availability until 2050. While total water use is expected to rise from 2,131 MCM in 2010 to 3,571 MCM in 2050