All in all Turkey’s climate is defined as semi-arid, whereas nine types of climate are observed mediterranean climate, wet mediterranean climate, partially wet mediterranean climate, Black Sea climate, Partially wet Marmara climate, steppe climate, partially dry central anatolian climate, partially dry south east anatolian climate and continental east anatolian climate
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Uncontrolled use of groundwater resources in the regions with insufficient amount of surface water (rivers and lakes) stands out as another challenge. Use of illegal wells for groundwater extraction is a major issue. Despite the legal regulations on wells, the problem related to illegal wells cannot be solved because of the inadequate sanctions and inspection. The groundwater resources are subject to intense use for agriculture purpose. Because of over-extraction, most of the groundwater resources are under the threat of extinction.
The discussions about the creation of a ministry related to the water resources have continued for a long time and took its final form in 2011 under the name of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs.This ministry is responsible for the development of policies related to the protection of water resources and their sustainable use, and the coordination of the national water management.
Between 1950 and 1965, open irrigation canals were constructed in Turkey. Irrigation systems with canalettes have been introduced since 1965. Irrigation systems with canallettes were constructed between 1970 and 1980. By 1990, low and medium pipe network with advanced pipe technologies have been used.