Results for Tag: 1995

10 results found.
Shared Water Resources of Iran

Internal renewable water resources are estimated at 92BCM, with another 13CM coming in from transboundary resources. Surface run-off represents a total of 97.3km3/year, of which 5.4 km3/year come from draining the aquifers.

Turkey

All in all Turkey’s climate is defined as semi-arid, whereas nine types of climate are observed mediterranean climate, wet mediterranean climate, partially wet mediterranean climate, Black Sea climate, Partially wet Marmara climate, steppe climate, partially dry central anatolian climate, partially dry south east anatolian climate and continental east anatolian climate

Turkey’s Transboundary Waters

The Euphrates-Tigris basin is among the most important river basins in Turkey and in the Middle East. The average annual discharge of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers is 84 billion m3, which equals to the average annual flow of the Nile River. Euphrates provides 90 per cent of water, whose average annual flow is 32 billion m3, from Turkey.

Political Context

The political climate in the Middle East makes it impossible to discuss water without addressing the political contexts that have shaped its availability.

Shared Water Resources

All water resources in Palestine are shared, mainly with Israel. Shared water usually needs to be governed through agreements on allocation and use between the different parties.

Increasing Water Availability

Per capita water availability in Palestine will keep decreasing if no new water resources are developed. Since its creation in 1995, the PWA has dealt with water supplies by negotiating for a fair share of water resources with Israel. Unfortunately, the results of these efforts have not lead to any further increase in the Palestinian share from the Mountain Aquifer and the Jordan River in the West Bank or the Coastal Aquifer in Gaza. In fact, the situation has worsened over the years.

Overview of Institutions

Water resource access and distribution in the West Bank is decentralized and fragmented. Prior to the Oslo Accords and the establishment of the PWA, water distribution and administration were under the control of the West Bank Water Department (WBWD). Its role was to mediate between the Palestinian population as end users and Mekorot as the water supplier in the West Bank. Currently, WBWD is one of many institutions that supply water in the West Bank.

Water Quality

Deterioration of water quality in Palestine, especially in Gaza, is a key environmental challenge that requires urgent action. Groundwater resources are suffering due to infiltration of untreated wastewater from leakages in the infrastructure

Political Context

The water crisis in Palestine cannot be presented in isolation from the political context, which continues to affect the economy, population, resource distribution and land ownership in the territories. However, because of the complexity of the issues and the limited scope of this report, the events that have impacted the water situation are only briefly discussed on this page …

Shared Water Resources

Almost all of Israel’s natural surface and groundwater resources are shared with neighbouring countries, except for the Kishon River, which is so heavily polluted that it is no longer suitable for use.